Sunday, November 20, 2011

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

How to read the Periodic Table of the Elements and how to use it!

I will use Carbon as an example
Element: Carbon
Atomic number: 6
Symbol: C
Standard Atomic mass: 12.011
State of matter: Solid

Definitions---

Atomic Number:
The number of protons in an atom defines what element it is. For example carbon atoms have six protons, hydrogen atoms have one, and oxygen atoms have eight. The number of protons in an atom is referred to as the atomic number of that element. The number of protons in an atom also determines the chemical behavior of the element.


Atomic Symbol:
The atomic symbol is one or two letters chosen to represent an element (H for hydrogen). These symbols are used internationally. Typically, a symbol is the name of the element or the Latin name of the element.


Standard Atomic Mass:
The standard atomic mass is the average mass of an element in atomic mass units (amu). Though individual atoms always have an integer number of atomic mass units, the atomic mass on the periodic table is stated as a decimal number because it is an average of the various isotopes of an element. Isotopes can have a weight either more or less than the average. The average number of neutrons for an element can be found by subtracting the number of protons from the atomic mass.
State of matter:
The State of matter is wither the element is a gas, liquid, solid, or synthetic.

On the table the blue is metal, the pink is metalloids, and the green is nonmetal.

How to write the element carbon
6p+
C
6n-
2
)  


Atomic mass rounded
-
Minus

Protons            

The number of Neutrons


The number of protons are the same of the number of electrons.

There are orbital that go around the circle with the protons (+) and the neutrons (-) inside of it.
The first orbital has =2 at the most
The second orbital has =8 at the most
The third has=8 at the most
The fourth has=18 at the most

To get the number of electrons you use the number on the side of the chart (going up and down) and follow that line all the way across until you get to the element that you want.

Carbon is on the second row so that’s how many electrons you have in the orbital 

Protons= +
Neutrons= -
Electrons= neutral

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